Sexual assault, a form of sexual violence, is any involuntary sexual act in which a person is threatened, coerced, or forced to engage against their will, or any non-consensual sexual touching of a person. This includes rape, groping, forced kissing, child sexual abuse, or the torture of the victim in a sexual manner. In legal terms, sexual assault is a statutory offense in various jurisdictions, including the United States, Canada, England and Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. The legal definition of the crime of sexual assault is determined by each jurisdiction. Specific legal jurisdictions and research often use highly technical or detailed definitions of the term. In some places, such as New South Wales, the crime of sexual assault has replaced the traditional crime of rape, and is being defined as non-consensual penetrative sex. By contrast, in other jurisdictions, the crime deals with non-penetrative sexual contact.